There’s good scientific evidence that children who live in hard water areas are 54% more likely to have eczema, compared to children who live in softer water areas. So does this mean that you can reduce your child’s eczema by installing a water softener? There is plenty of marketing hype suggesting that water softeners can help to control eczema – but is this actually the case and is as it worth investing in one to control your little one’s eczema? ScratchSleeves family have dug into the research and made their decision.
Like 60% of people in the UK, we live in a hard water area so were intrigued by the work of the University of Nottingham’s Centre of Evidence-based Dermatology into the relationship of hard water and eczema symptoms. Nottingham is unusual in that one half the town has a soft water supply and other half has hard water and researchers from the Centre of Evidence-based Dermatology were surprised to find that primary school children living in the hard water areas were 54% more likely to have atopic eczema than children living in soft water areas. So was the local water causing or exacerbating eczema?
Do water softeners help eczema symptoms?
To answer this question the team set up the Softened-Water Eczema Trial (SWET), involving 336 children for a 16 week period. In one of the study groups, an ion-exchange water softener was installed in the child’s house, and they were given usual eczema care. In the other group, children received usual eczema care only. Research nurses, who did not know which children had been allocated a water softener, assessed both groups for signs of improvement to their skin. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of eczema severity and there was no difference in night time scratching or the need for of topical creams and ointments. But an interesting aside is that the researchers found parents were using consistently less of the child’s prescription creams than recommended.
What the science says
The science indicates that water softeners do not provide any additional benefits over and above the standard treatments for children with moderate to severe eczema.
So why are children in hard water areas 54% more likely to suffer from eczema? The most likely explanation is that hard water reduces the amount that detergents or toiletries foam meaning that people in hard water areas need to use more of them. Both detergents and many ingredients commonly used in toiletries are known to aggravate eczema, especially if used in large amounts. So is it actually the increased use of toiletries in hard water areas that aggravate eczema and not the hard water itself? See our articles on eczema friendly laundry and bath-times for tips on how to identify detergent allergies and keep clean without the itch.
What did we decide?
We have decided against fitting a water softener to keep the family’s eczema under control – largely on the basis of the science above. There is a good argument that water softeners reduce the number of detergents and soap that you need to use, which is good for the environment as well as your bank balance – but this is not eczema based argument and personally I would rather identify and avoid our eczema triggers rather than not know about them. If we do ever have a water softener fitted it will because I would love to not have descale the kettle, shower-heads, taps (and the list goes on!) on such a regular basis.
How does a water softener work?
Water hardness is primarily caused by calcium and magnesium in the water supply. The water is softened by ion-exchange, where the softener almost completely removes calcium and magnesium. Inside the softener, there are tiny beads of ion-exchange resin, which are preloaded with sodium. The water passes through the beads and the calcium and magnesium are exchanged with the sodium. The sodium then softens the water.
- A Randomised Controlled Trial of Ion-Exchange Water Softeners for the Treatment of Eczema in Children. KS Thomas, T Dean, C O’Leary, TH Sach, K Koller, A Frost, HC.Williams, the SWET Trial Team. PloS Medicine February 15, 2011
Our Editorial Policy
Here at ScratchSleeves we aim to bring you trustworthy and accurate information. We collaborate with qualified dermatologists and doctors as well as drawing on peer-reviewed medical studies and our own experience as parents. All medical content is reviewed by a dermatologist or appropriate doctor prior to publication to ensure completeness, accuracy and appropriate use of medical language. Reviewer details can be found at the bottom of each reviewed post and also on our ‘Meet The Team’ page.
All scientific research referred to in our blog is found in peer-reviewed publications. All the eczema related medical articles we refer to are included in the GREAT database (Global Resource of Eczema Trials) managed by the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology at the University of Nottingham. This database brings together information on all randomised control trials and systematic reviews of eczema treatments. Trials are identified using a highly sensitive, comprehensive search strategy that is compatible with standard Cochrane methodology. Cochrane is internationally recognised as the highest standard in evidence-based health care. Links to the publications we refer to are listed at the bottom of each article.
The original editorial information we provide is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified healthcare practitioner regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it in because of anything you have read on the ScratchSleeves blog.
Here at ScratchSleeves we don’t just share our experiences of bringing up an eczema child and favourite allergy friendly recipes, we also manufacture and sell our unique stay-on scratch mitts and PJs for itchy babies, toddlers and children. We now stock sizes from 0-16 years in a range of colours. Visit www.ScratchSleeves.co.uk for more information.